【インターンステラ】 Sphinxの始め方

岩佐です.
ドキュメント作成にSphinxを使うため, その手順を書いておきます.
環境はMacです.

$ sw_vers
ProductName: Mac OS X
ProductVersion: 10.13.4
BuildVersion: 17E199


Sphinxのインストール

まずSphinxのインストール.
$ pip3 install Sphinx
$ pip3 install --upgrade Sphinx

Sphinxを始める

事前にドキュメントを作るディレクトリでも作っておきましょうか.
$ mkdir sample && cd sample
ドキュメント作成を始めるには,
$ sphinx-quickstart
すると最初にいくつかの質問がきます.
ほとんどはそのままEnterを押してオーケーですが, Project name, Author nameは入力してください.
Project languageはjaにしておきましょう. またautodocはyにします.

$ sphinx-quickstart
Welcome to the Sphinx 1.7.5 quickstart utility.

Please enter values for the following settings (just press Enter to
accept a default value, if one is given in brackets).

Selected root path: .

You have two options for placing the build directory for Sphinx output.
Either, you use a directory "_build" within the root path, or you separate
"source" and "build" directories within the root path.
> Separate source and build directories (y/n) [n]: 

Inside the root directory, two more directories will be created; "_templates"
for custom HTML templates and "_static" for custom stylesheets and other static
files. You can enter another prefix (such as ".") to replace the underscore.
> Name prefix for templates and static dir [_]: 

The project name will occur in several places in the built documentation.
> Project name: sample
> Author name(s): foo
> Project release []: 

If the documents are to be written in a language other than English,
you can select a language here by its language code. Sphinx will then
translate text that it generates into that language.

For a list of supported codes, see
http://sphinx-doc.org/config.html#confval-language.
> Project language [en]: ja

The file name suffix for source files. Commonly, this is either ".txt"
or ".rst".  Only files with this suffix are considered documents.
> Source file suffix [.rst]: 

One document is special in that it is considered the top node of the
"contents tree", that is, it is the root of the hierarchical structure
of the documents. Normally, this is "index", but if your "index"
document is a custom template, you can also set this to another filename.
> Name of your master document (without suffix) [index]: 

Sphinx can also add configuration for epub output:
> Do you want to use the epub builder (y/n) [n]: 
Indicate which of the following Sphinx extensions should be enabled:
> autodoc: automatically insert docstrings from modules (y/n) [n]: y
> doctest: automatically test code snippets in doctest blocks (y/n) [n]: 
> intersphinx: link between Sphinx documentation of different projects (y/n) [n]: 
> todo: write "todo" entries that can be shown or hidden on build (y/n) [n]: 
> coverage: checks for documentation coverage (y/n) [n]: 
> imgmath: include math, rendered as PNG or SVG images (y/n) [n]: 
> mathjax: include math, rendered in the browser by MathJax (y/n) [n]: 
> ifconfig: conditional inclusion of content based on config values (y/n) [n]: 
> viewcode: include links to the source code of documented Python objects (y/n) [n]: 
> githubpages: create .nojekyll file to publish the document on GitHub pages (y/n) [n]: 

A Makefile and a Windows command file can be generated for you so that you
only have to run e.g. `make html' instead of invoking sphinx-build
directly.
> Create Makefile? (y/n) [y]: 
> Create Windows command file? (y/n) [y]: 

Creating file ./conf.py.
Creating file ./index.rst.
Creating file ./Makefile.
Creating file ./make.bat.

Finished: An initial directory structure has been created.

You should now populate your master file ./index.rst and create other documentation
source files. Use the Makefile to build the docs, like so:
   make builder
where "builder" is one of the supported builders, e.g. html, latex or linkcheck.

中身を確認してみましょう. 以下のようになっているはずです.

$ ls -R
Makefile   _build     _static    _templates conf.py    index.rst  make.bat

./_build:

./_static:

./_templates:

index.rstは, reStructuredTextという簡易マークアップ言語で書かれたファイルです.
自動で生成された中身は以下.

$ cat index.rst
.. sample documentation master file, created by
   sphinx-quickstart on Sat Jul 14 11:18:11 2018.
   You can adapt this file completely to your liking, but it should at least
   contain the root `toctree` directive.

Welcome to sample's documentation!
==================================

.. toctree::
   :maxdepth: 2
   :caption: Contents:



Indices and tables
==================

* :ref:`genindex`
* :ref:`modindex`
* :ref:`search`

Markdownなどの選択肢もあるようですが, デフォルトではこのreStructuredTextでドキュメントを記述します.

ビルドしてみましょう.

$ make html
とりあえずビルドしましょう. すると以下のようになると思います.

$ make html
Running Sphinx v1.7.5
loading translations [ja]... done
making output directory...
loading pickled environment... not yet created
building [mo]: targets for 0 po files that are out of date
building [html]: targets for 1 source files that are out of date
updating environment: 1 added, 0 changed, 0 removed
reading sources... [100%] index                                                                
looking for now-outdated files... none found
pickling environment... done
checking consistency... done
preparing documents... done
writing output... [100%] index                                                                 
generating indices... genindex
writing additional pages... search
copying static files... done
copying extra files... done
dumping search index in Japanese (code: ja) ... done
dumping object inventory... done
build succeeded.

The HTML pages are in _build/html.

ビルドに成功したようです. ここで再びディレクトリの中身を確認すると,

$ ls -R
Makefile   _build     _static    _templates conf.py    index.rst  make.bat

./_build:
doctrees html

./_build/doctrees:
environment.pickle index.doctree

./_build/html:
_sources       genindex.html  objects.inv    searchindex.js
_static        index.html     search.html

./_build/html/_sources:
index.rst.txt

./_build/html/_static:
ajax-loader.gif          documentation_options.js pygments.css
alabaster.css            down-pressed.png         searchtools.js
basic.css                down.png                 translations.js
comment-bright.png       file.png                 underscore-1.3.1.js
comment-close.png        jquery-3.2.1.js          underscore.js
comment.png              jquery.js                up-pressed.png
custom.css               minus.png                up.png
doctools.js              plus.png                 websupport.js

./_static:

./_templates:

なにやら色々できています. が, 気にせず _build/html/index.html を開きましょう.
$ open _build/html/index.html
すると, 以下のような画面が開かれると思います.
できてますね.
index.rstに書かれている「Welcome to sample's Documentation!」が表示されていますね.

ここまででもいいと思いますが, 別のテーマで見た目を変えます.
詳しくはSphinxのHTMLテーマのサポートを参照してください. ここではサードパーティ製のsphinx_rtd_themeにします.

sphinx_rtd_theme

$ pip3 install sphinx_rtd_theme
そしてconf.pyを編集します.
$ vim conf.py
編集できればエディタはなんでもいいですが, ここではvimを使います.
「i」を押して入力モード
「esc」, 「:wq」で保存してターミナルに戻ります.

以下のように変更, 追加を行ってください.

...

# -- Options for HTML output -------------------------------------------------

# The theme to use for HTML and HTML Help pages.  See the documentation for
# a list of builtin themes.
#
import sphinx_rtd_theme # 追加
html_theme = 'sphinx_rtd_theme' # 変更
html_theme_path = [sphinx_rtd_theme.get_html_theme_path()] # 追加

...

再びビルド
$ make html
そして_build/html/index.htmlを開きます.
$ open _build/html/index.html

人それぞれ好みはあると思いますが, こっちの方がいいですね!


これでSphinxでドキュメントを書き始める準備ができました.

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